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XCESSION >§f- 




SPECIAL OPERATIONS 



EIE4B-MANUAL. - 
STRATEGIC SERVICES 

(Provisional) 



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SPECIAL OPERATIONS 



MANUAL 



-STRATEGIC SERVICES 

(Provisional) 






"Office of Strategic Be£yce: 
Washington, D. C. 
23 February 1944 



This Special Operations Field Manual — Strategic 
Services (Provisional) is published for the information 
and guidance of all concerned and will be used as the 
basic doctrine for Strategic Services training for such 
subjects. 

It should be carefully noted that Special Operations 
as denned in this Manual covers the following subjects: 
(1) sabotage; (2) direct contact with and support of 
underground resistance groups; (3) conduct of special 
operations not assigned to other Government agencies 
and not under direct control of theater or area com- 
manders. Special Operations do not include promotion of, 
or engagement in, guerrilla activities or subversive mari- 
time activities, which will be the subjects of other pro- 
visional basic field manuals. 

The contents of this Manual should be carefully con- 
trolled and should not be allowed to come into unauthor- 
ized hands. 

AR 380-5, pertaining to handling of secret docu- 
ments, will be complied with in the handling of this 
Manual. 





William J. Donovan. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 
SECTION I — PRINCIPLES AND METHODS 



1. THE MISSION, OBJECTIVE, AND 

IMPLEMENTS 1 

2. DEFINITIONS 1 

3. METHODS 3 

SECTION II — ORGANIZATION 

4. ORGANIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES 3 

5. ORGANIZATION AT FIELD BASES ... 3 

6. ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS .... 4 

7. ORGANIZATION OF FIELD OPERATIVES 4 



8. CONTACT WITH AND SUPPORT OF UNDER- 

GROUND RESISTANCE GROUPS ... 4 

SECTION III — PROCUREMENT OF PERSONNEL 

9. ORGANIZATION FOR PROCUREMENT . 4 
10. SOURCES FROM WHICH PERSONNEL ARE 



DRAWN 5 

11. TYPES OF PERSONNEL REQUIRED ... 5 

SECTION IV — TRAINING 

12. ORGANIZATION FOR TRAINING .... 5 

13. SCOPE OF TRAINING 6 

14. TRAINING OBJECTIVES 6 

SECTION V — SUPPLY AND COMMUNICATION 

15. THE SPECIAL OPERATIONS SUPPLY 

PROBLEM 7 

16. ORGANIZATION FOR SUPPLY .... 7 

17. SUPPLIES FOR SABOTEURS AND 

RESISTANCE GROUPS 8 

18. PAYMENT AND SUBSIDIES 8 

19. RADIO AND OTHER SIGNAL EQUIPMENT . 8 

20. TRANSPORTATION 8 



SECTION VI — COORDINATION OF SPECIAL 
OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES WITH THAT OF 
OTHER OSS BRANCHES AND THE ARMED 
FORCES AND OTHER AGENCIES OF THE 
UNITED NATIONS 



21. COOPERATION WITH OTHER OSS 

BRANCHES 9 

22. COOPERATION WITH SIMILAR AGENCIES 

OF ALLIED GOVERNMENTS .... 10 




23. COOPERAflf ft Wfi'Q THE ARMED FORCES 10 



24. COOPERATIOBPWtlik TO\£pRNMENT . j 

AGENCIES . . "7 ®^%jjjij7jj.j*g§ 10 

SECTION VII — PLANS AND ORD 

25. IMPORTANCE OF PLANS AND ORDERS . . 11 

26. ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR 

THE PREPARATION OF PLANS AND 
ORDERS 11 

27. PROCEDURE IN OPERATIONAL PLANNING ' 11 

SECTION VIII — SABOTAGE TECHNIQUES 

28. DEFINITION 12 

29. PLANNING SABOTAGE 12 

30. TRAINING OF SABOTEURS 12 

31. TYPES OF SABOTAGE 13 

32. METHODS OF SABOTAGE 14 

SECTION IX — MISCELLANEOUS SPECIAL 
OPERATIONS FUNCTIONS 

33. ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS 15 

34. MORALE OPERATIONS ACTIVITY ... 15 

35. INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITY 15 

36. ASSISTANCE TO THE ARMED FORCES . . 15 

37. DIRECT CONTACT WITH AND SUPPORT OF 
UNDERGROUND RESISTANCE GROUPS . . 15 

38. SPECIAL OPERATIONS NOT ASSIGNED TO 

OTHER GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES AND 
NOT UNDER THE DIRECT CONTROL OF 
THEATER OR AREA COMMANDERS . . 16 

SECTION X — THE SELECTION OF SPECIAL 
OPERATIONS TASKS AND MISSIONS 

39. TYPES OF TASKS 16 

40. SELECTION OF MISSIONS TO COORDINATE 

WITH THE MILITARY PLAN .... 17 

41. AUTHORIZED MISSIONS 19 

42. TASKS SHOULD BE PRACTICAL .... 19 

43. MISSIONS MUST BE APPROVED BY THE 

MILITARY COMMANDER 19 

44. CHECK LIST 19 

APPENDIX "A" TO SPECIAL OPERATIONS 
FIELD MANUAL 

CHECK LIST — FOR SO ( WASHINGTON^ - . . 20 
CHECK LIST *4 FOR SO (THEATER) J £ ME . . 24 





STRATEGIC SERVICES 
(Provisional) 



:anual 



SECTION I — PRINCIPLES AND METHODS 

1. THE MISSION, OBJECTIVE, AND IMPLEMENTS 

The mission of the OSS is to plan and operate special 
services, (including secret intelligence, research and 
analysis, and morale and physical subversion) to lower 
the enemy's will and capacity to resist, carried on in sup- 
port of military operations and in furtherance of the war 
effort. The mission of the Special Operations Branch is 
to carry out that part of the OSS mission which can be 
accomplished by certain physical subversive methods as 
contrasted with the operations of the Morale Operations, 
the Operational Groups, and the Maritime Unit. The 
primary objective of the Special Operations Branch is 
the destruction of enemy personnel, materiel, and instal- 
lations. 

2. DEFINITIONS 

a. Over-all Program for Strategic Services Activ- 
ities — a collection of objectives, in order of priority 
(importance) within a theater or area. 

b. Objective — a main or controlled goal for accom- 
plishment within a theater or area by Strategic Services 
as set forth in an Over-All Program. 

c. Special Program for Strategic Services Activ- 
ities — a statement setting forth the detailed missions 
assigned to one or more Strategic Services branches, 
designed to accomplish a given objective, together with 
a summary of the situation and the general methods 
of accomplishment of the assigned missions. 

d. Mission — a statement of purpose set forth in a 
special program for the accomplishment of a given 
objective. 





flabora- 
,ils and 



means of carrying out the specified activities. 

f. Task — a detailed operation, usually planned in 
the field, which contributes toward the accomplishment 
of a mission. 

g. Target — a place, establishment, group, or individ- 
ual toward which activities or operations are directed. 

h. The Field — all areas outside of the Western Hem- 
isphere in which Strategic Services activities take place. 

i. Field Base — an OSS headquarters in the field, 
designated by the name of the city in which it is 
established, e.g., OSS FIELD BASE, Cairo. 

i. Advanced or Sub-base — an additional base estab- 
lished by and responsible to an OSS field base. 

k. Operative — an individual employed by and re- 
sponsible to the OSS and assigned under special pro- 
grams to field activity. 

1. Agent — an individual recruited in the field who 
is employed and directed by an OSS operative or by a 
field or sub-base. 

m. Cover — an open status, assumed or bona fide, 
which serves to conceal the secret activities of an opera- 
tive or agent. 

n. Cutout — a person who forms a communicating 
link between two individuals, for security purposes. 

o. Operational Groups — a small, uniformed party of 
specially qualified soldiers, organized, trained, and 
equipped to accomplish the specific missions set forth 
below. 

p. Resistance Groups — individuals associated to- 
gether in enemy-held territory to injure the enemy by 
any or all means short of military operations, e.g., by 
sabotage, espionage, non-cooperation. 

q. Guerrillas — an organized band of individuals in 
enemy-held territory, indefinite as to number, which 



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3. METHODS ^'MJ 

The methods to be used by Special Operations are 
all measures needed to destroy enemy personnel, materiel, 
installations, and his will to resist. The major classifica- 
tions of SO methods are; 

a. Sabotage. 

b. Direct contact with and support of underground 
resistance groups. 

c. Special operations not assigned to other govern- 
mental agencies and not under direct control of theater 
or area commanders. 

SECTION II — ORGANIZATION 

4. ORGANIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Special Operations Branch is included under 
Strategic Services Operations and is responsible for the 
following: 

a. Sabotage. 

b. Direct contact with and support of underground 
resistance groups. 

c. Conduct of special operations not assigned to 
other governmental agencies and not under direct con- 
trol of theater or area commanders. 

d. Organization, equipment, and training of such 
individuals or organizations as may be required for 
operations not assigned to other governmental agencies. 

5. ORGANIZATION AT FIELD BASES 

Each field base will normally include an SO section, 
the head of which is responsible to the Strategic Services 
Officer in theaters or to the Chief of OSS Mission in 
neutral countries, and which will participate in the plan- 
ning and execution of SO activities in that theater or area. 
SO personnel both at the base and in the field will be 




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responsible for carrying out the approve 
programs and such additional operations as may^ ' 
thorized by the theater commander for that theater 
area. 

6. ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS 

a. At headquarters in Washington and in the thea- 
ters of operation the SO units, assisted by other OSS 
units, are responsible for : 

Recruiting Training 
Planning Supply 
Administration Liaison 
Staff work 

b. SO in its activities will be assisted by the intelli- 
gence branches, the operating branches, Services and 
Communications Branches, Schools and Training 
Branch, Field Photographic Branch, and other OSS 
organizations. 

7. ORGANIZATION OF FIELD OPERATIVES 

Field operatives work individually or in groups as 
required by the mission and objective. Many operatives 
working with the underground must of necessity operate 
alone. Carefully selected and trained units will be organ- 
ized specially for specific coup de main projects. 

8. CONTACT WITH AND SUPPORT OF UNDER- 
GROUND RESISTANCE GROUPS 

SO operatives may assist and train agents for contact 
with and support of resistance groups. In order to per- 
form this function effectively, they must ascertain the 
needs of the resistance groups, arrange for communica- 
tions with the base and assist in the delivery of such 
supplies as can be obtained. On occasion it may be prac- 
tical for SO operatives personally to serve as leaders of 
already organized resistance groups. 

SECTION III — PROCUREMENT OF PERSONNEL 

9. ORGANIZATION FOR PROCUREMENT 

The SO Branch is charged with the responsibility for 
procurement of its personnel. Civilian clerical personnel 

fe2 




is procuren tfl#i gjf 
United States a%r jfaAdl 
military and naval, ft^frj 
through the Personnel Proc 1 




eign bases through the Services^Bfc yjp At all times 
military and naval personnel must corns within the ap- 
proved allotment of grades and ratings for the theater set 
by Washington Headquarters. 

10. SOURCES FROM WHICH PERSONNEL ARE DRAWN 

SO may recruit civilians of United States or other 
nationalities. By agreement with the armed forces, mem- 
bers of the United States Army, Navy, and Marine Corps 
may be assigned to OSS and detailed to SO for service. 
Members of the armed forces of our Allies may be at- 
tached to OSS and detailed to SO for duty, in each case 
by agreement with the authorities of the nation concerned. 

11. TYPES OF PERSONNEL REQUIRED 

a. Base personnel will be either military or civilian 
and are individually selected for their ability to perform 
special functions. 

b. SO agents and operatives are selected for their 
intelligence, courage, and natural resourcefulness in 
dealing with resistance groups. In addition they must 
have stamina to be able to live and move about unde- 
tected in their area of operation. Normally, they should 
be fluent in the local language and be a native of a 
nationality acceptable to the authorities and people of 
the area. 



12. ORGANIZATION FOR TRAINING 

Basic training courses are provided by the Schools 
and Training Branch. The Special Operations Branch 
collaborates with that Branch by developing satisfactory 
training courses for the schools. Training is a continuous 
process and it is the responsibility of each SO chief, both 
in the United States and in the field to see that training 
progresses satisfactorily. 



SECTION IV 



TRAINING 



SSlFlFti 

Because of the . hazardous natuftflerijpspecialized 

technical requirements of SO, it is important that every 
individual in the organization receive a thorough school- 
ing in the work he has to perform. For field operatives and 
all those having to do with planning, servicing, and com- 
manding field operatives, training starts with the basic 
school courses which include instruction in secret intelli- 
gence and morale operations as well as special operations. 
Special schooling for each mission is given to the in- 
dividuals assigned to it. For specific tasks schooling be- 
comes intensive and detailed and concludes in a final 
briefing or instruction just prior to the execution of the 
task. 

14. TRAINING OBJECTIVES 

a. For Operating Techniques 

The SO operative must be able to assume perfect 
cover or concealment. He must know how to employ 
underground methods of communication without un- 
due risk to himself or others. He must know how to 
recruit, incite, train, and direct the operations of agents, 
saboteurs, resistance groups, and agents provocateur. 

b. For Sabotage Training 

The saboteur, according to the methods he is to 
employ, should be skilled in sabotage by resistance, or 
by destruction, or against personnel, or by coup de main 
projects. He should be able to reach his objective, per- 
form the act of sabotage effectively, and either avoid de- 
tection or effect an escape. He should preferably be able 
to incite, organize, train, and lead sabotage groups. 

c. Morale 

The maintenance of high morale is the responsi- 
bility of all SO commanders and is especially important 
because of the hazardous, lonely work of SO operatives. 
From the time a recruit reports for duty until his service 
is at an end, building up and holding up his morale is 
an essential training objective for all officers who have 




6 





anything to do with -tne ma^F^iM jp#|p must be per- 
sonally well-acquainted mih^a(^i^&mn their units. 
Schools and Training Branch office wil inject morale 
building into their training course^and SO officers will 
cooperate with the Schools and Training Branch follow- 
ing the progress of their men in the schools. During 
periods of inactivity or waiting, SO officers will see to it 
that men are kept occupied with work or diversions 
directed towards the tasks on which they will be em- 
ployed and to the maintenance of their morale. Frequent 
specific checks of the status of morale of each man and 
each group will be made by responsible SO officers. Senior 
officers will inspect the units commanded by junior of- 
ficers to insure that morale is maintained. 



SECTION V — SUPPLY AND COMMUNICATION 

15. THE SPECIAL OPERATIONS SUPPLY PROBLEM 

Covering the entire field of sabotage and resistance 
groups in a number of large theaters of operation means 
that SO is confronted with a complicated and extensive 
problem of supply. It will be necessary to obtain thousands 
of standard items included in the supply tables of the 
armed forces and in addition many special items necessary 
to sabotage, underground communication, and resistance 
groups. Clothing, food, medicines, arms, ammunition, 
demolition materials, communication equipment, naval 
equipment, air equipment, money, and other supplies will 
be necessary to SO activity. 

16. ORGANIZATION FOR SUPPLY 

The OSS Services Officer at field bases or in Washing- 
ton fills requisitions for supplies, money, and transporta- 
tion. It will not always be possible to communicate with 
the Services Officer, especially in active service in the field 
where supplies may be needed on the spot and immediately. 
To meet these emergencies SO officers and operatives may 
be supplied with special funds or through the theater com- 
mander authority may be obtained to requisition on 
vouchers from civilian and other sources. It is essential 
that all /responsible SO officers and operatives have a 





TANCE 



trans- 



GROUPS 

One of the greatest obstacles to underground and 
resistance activity is the difficulty of obtaining needed 
equipment, and one of the most important functions of 
SO is to see that the underground and resistance groups 
receive adequate equipment for effective operations. SO 
officers and operatives should maintain a continuous sur- 
vey of the supply requirements of the underground and 
resistance groups they deal with, report such requirements 
to the theater or other commander, and make every effort 
to see that their needs are satisfied. 

18. PAYMENT AND SUBSIDIES 

Special funds are provided for the financial support 
of underground and resistance personnel. Great care 
must be exercised in disbursing funds for these purposes as 
oftentimes an individual activated by money may not be 
a stable character. 

19. RADIO AND OTHER SIGNAL EQUIPMENT 

The Communications Branch of OSS is the normal 
source of supply for radio and other signal equipment. All 
equipment of this type must be obtained through this 
source. 

20. TRANSPORTATION 

a. Arrangements for transportation of such SO mili- 
tary and civilian personnel as have been requested by 
the theater commander from the United States to 
theaters of operation are made through the transporta- 
tion officer of the theater officer's staff. The necessary 
passports are secured from the Special Relations Office. 
Arrangements for overseas shipment of material are 
made through the Cargo Unit of the Services Branch. 

b. Transportation of SO personnel and cargo within 
theaters is arranged by the Services Officer on the staff 
of the Strategfc Services Officer. When movement of 




pf,2 fry.- y 



8 



.3 






personnel or cj 
services officers are not 
transportation should be made th¥ot&| 
priate channels of the Army or Navy. 



where OSS 
ements for 
e'arest appro- 



SECTION VI— COORDINATION OF SPECIAL OPERA- 
TIONS ACTIVITY WITH THAT OF OTHER OSS 
BRANCHES AND THE ARMED FORCES AND 
OTHER AGENCIES OF THE UNITED NATIONS 

21. COOPERATION WITH OTHER OSS BRANCHES 

a. General 

The activities of the branches of OSS are inter- 
dependent. SO activities must be correlated with those 
of intelligence and the other operating branches. SO 
is part of the OSS team and all of its activities must be 
planned and executed as part of the OSS program. 

b. Intelligence 

SI, X-2, R&A, and FN supply information to SO. 
Such information will include information from the 
intelligence services of the armed forces and our allies. 
SO should obtain its own operational intelligence from 
the underground and resistance organizations with 
which they are in contact. Much of the information 
which SO uncovers will be useful to the intelligence 
services and others and should be turned over to SI. To 
avoid duplication of effort and the risk of discovery by 
the enemy, SO and SI activities in the field will be co- 
ordinated for the benefit of both services. 

c. Morale Operations 

The functions of MO an SO will often overlap. 
Activities of SO may have an effect on the morale of 
our friends or enemies and SO personnel may be re- 
quired to assist in MO activities in the field. This will 
be necessary where MO will not have a field organization, 
and when MO will train SO personnel to execute MO 
missions. Sabotage and activities of resistance groups 
will increase in extent and effectiveness as a resistance 
spirit is fl^cr^ajSed by morale operations. MO and SO 






other. SO will often require the development of atti- 
tudes or states of mind and will request MO to cooperate. 

22. COOPERATION WITH SIMILAR AGENCIES OF 
ALLIED GOVERNMENTS 

Our Allies have agencies which in whole or in part 
parallel the functions of OSS. The governments-in-exile 
of enemy-occupied countries all have intelligence organ- 
izations and are in active communication with the under- 
ground and resistance groups in occupied areas. It is the 
duty of OSS and SO to cooperate with the similar agencies 
of our Allies. It will often be necessary for SO to be the 
subordinate teammate of an agency of an Allied govern- 
ment. Every effort must be made to avoid the frictions 
and misunderstandings which can develop so easily when 
agencies of Allied governments are working together on 
the same task. 

23. COOPERATION WITH THE ARMED FORCES 

The fact that the Strategic Services are under the 
command of the theater commander is not enough to 
insure that OSS will most effectively play its part as a 
member of the military team. It is the responsibility of 
Strategic Services Officers and special operations officers 
and operatives to insure that all plans and activities are 
integrated with the plans of the theater commander. 
Military plans may call for drastic and sudden changes in 
the special operations plan and it will be necessary for 
operatives and officers to conform. 

24. COOPERATION WITH GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 

Political, diplomatic, and administrative branches of 
our government and the governments of our Allies partici- 
pate in the war effort at home and abroad and SO opera- 
tions must conform to the accepted policies and programs 
of these agencies. By political and diplomatic activity and 
through the supply of foods, medicines, and other mater- 
ials, the government agencies are often in a position to 
assist in special operations activity. SO must never per- 



form functions reserved to other -gO«e£nr^ 
except when duly authorized. 

SECTION VII — PLANS AND ORDERS 

25. IMPORTANCE OF PLANS AND ORDERS 

SO activities must conform to the missions laid down 
in OSS special programs or in approved projects to be 
incorporated in special programs. Based upon these mis- 
sions, SO must prepare, in coordination with all branches 
of OSS, operational plans for the accomplishment of those 
missions. SO must see to it that SO plans are coordinated 
with those of other branches. SO personnel and units 
must always be prepared to act promptly and decisively in 
furtherance of those plans when an opportunity presents 
itself. Unless plans are based on accurate information and 
worked out in exact detail, SO operatives and agents will 
be working at a great disadvantage. Slipshod planning 
will result in discovery by the enemy, heavy casualties, and 
failure. A failure means that SO methods will be revealed 
to the enemy, putting him on guard, and making it dim- 
cult or impossible to succeed after the failure. 

26. ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE 
PREPARATION OF PLANS AND ORDERS 

a. The over-all responsibility for OSS planning is 
stated in Section IV, Provisional Basic Field Manual for 
Strategic Services. 

b. Within the scope of approved Strategic Services 
programs, the chief of the SO Branch in Washington or 
at a field base is responsible for the preparation of opera- 
tional plans and orders covering SO activities. Similarly, 
the commander or chief of any SO activity in the field is 
responsible for the preparation of operational plans and 
orders for the personnel engaged in that activity. 

27. PROCEDURE IN OPERATIONAL PLANNING 

Planning is a continuous process in which all respon- 
sible officers participate. It will be the duty of the chief of 
SO branch or seetiqn to develop operational plans covering 
the missions ^lfl&eebin* Strategic Services programs. He 





will also prepare operational plans for activities which the 
theater commander desires to have accomplished in con- 
nection with military operations, and which have not yet 
been included in OSS special programs. Within the limits 
of security control a description of such activities will be 
sent to OSS, Washington, to be included in OSS special 
programs, which are to be executed within that theater. 
The process of preparing operational plans and orders will 
vary widely according to the situation. A plan may consist 
of a simple verbal recommendation and an order may be 
an equally simple verbal instruction. Another plan may 
call for months of detailed preparation and the develop- 
ment of the corresponding orders may likewise entail 
laborious work. Procedure must never impede effective 
operation, and when the preparation of formal orders 
threatens to slow down action, oral orders must be used. 
The United States War Department Staff Officers Field 
Manual, FM 101 — 5, may be consulted with respect to 
forms for operational orders. The Strategic Services de- 
tachments within the theaters are subject to the direction 
and control of the theater commander and an adherence 
to military procedure will facilitate OSS work. 

SECTION VIII — SABOTAGE TECHNIQUES 

28. DEFINITION 

Special Operations sabotage includes all secret physi- 
cal subversive activity which destroys or impairs the 
effectiveness of enemy resources, production, personnel, 
materiel, and installations. 

29. PLANNING SABOTAGE 

The planning of sabotage will cover a large range of 
subjects from the most simple act to the highly scientific 
operation involving inconsiderable original research. Once 
a sabotage task has been decided upon, careful plans 
should be prepared for its accomplishment. The enemy will 
always have a defense against sabotage and no plan can 
succeed unless this defense is penetrated successfully. Even 
in the most violent and open sabotage, surprise, deception, 
and withdrawal are fundamental to planning. 

30. TRAINING OF SABOTEURS 

For all types of sabotage, including the most elemen- 




tary, the personnel WlM 
in the use of sabotage ir 

concealment, deception, and withdrawal. 'W^fcl 
sabotage task individuals or groups should be spf 
selected, trained, and rehearsed. The details of basic train- 
ing for sabotage are covered in the courses of the Schools 
and Training Branch of OSS. For the training of opera- 
tives and agents for specific tasks, information and assis- 
tance will be obtained from the intelligence services of OSS 
who will provide information from all other available 
sources, military, governmental, and civil. 

31. TYPES OF SABOTAGE 

a. Industrial Sabotage 

Industrial sabotage includes attacks on natural 
resources such as mines, oil wells, and water supply; 
attacks on processing and handling facilities such as 
refineries, smelters, factories, and warehouses; public 
utilities such as electric, telephone, railroad, road, water, 
and gas systems; and, essential supplies such as forage, 
foods, and medicines. Physical attacks on management 
and labor personnel are part of industrial sabotage. 

b. Military Sabotage 

Military sabotage includes attacks on lines of com- 
munication, supplies, installations, equipment, materiel, 
and personnel. Included are roads, railroads, waterways, 
and their equipment; aircraft, airports, and their instal- 
lations; radio, telephone, and telegraph systems; food, 
water, arms, ammunition, medical, and other supplies; 
key personnel, staffs, sentries, outposts, bridge and other 
guards. 

c. Political and Public Sabotage 

Political and public physical sabotage covers the 
liquidation or physical harassment of political and ad- 
ministrative leaders and physical interference with their 
effectiveness, the demoralization or terrorization of the 
population by physical means, and physical attacks on 
collaborationists. 

13 < : ; . ' /T- rra n r~u 




32. METHOD 

a. Sabotage Applied to Individuals 

Includes liquidation, capture, delays, interferences, 
and physical attacks on personnel. 

b. Sabotage by Destruction 

Thousands of destructive methods are available 
including explosions, fires, floods, wrecks, accidents, 
leaks, breaks, overwork of machinery, maladjustment of 
machinery, and the adulteration of lubricants, fuels and 
products. 

c. Sabotage by Resistance 

Physical resistance by riots and mob action is best 
conducted by native resistance groups. SO contributes 
by giving support, supplies, and when necessary, leader- 
ship. MO contributes by inciting and instructing resist- 
ance groups to acts which impede the enemy's military 
progress, such as absenteeism, slow-down in production, 
and other acts of passive resistance and simple sabotage. 
Sabotage by resistance may result in overlapping func- 
tions of MO and SO. Hence, in this field MO and SO must 
cooperate and coordinate their activities. (See the Pro- 
visional Basic Field Manual for Morale Operations.) 

d. Coup de Main Projects 

Coup de main operations are usually attacks 
against important targets and are executed by a care- 
fully selected and trained group of SO operatives. 

e. Defense Missions 

The defense mission is one that is designed to pre- 
vent the destruction of installations by the retreating 
enemy. This includes protection of important bridges 
and tunnels; wire communications, including wires, 
transformers, repeater stations; power plants, radio sta- 
tions, water and sewage systems. It also includes activi- 
ties to prevent the mining of roads by the enemy, the 
blowing up of supply dumps, as well as other activities 
that will prevent the enemy from impeding the progress 



01 tlie^ifivadiiig forces; ResisSS 
guidance of SO operatives,-* w4ll£ 




ips, under the 
irimary agency 



in the accomplishment of defense missions. 

SECTION IX— MISCELLANEOUS SPECIAL 



33. ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS 

As a member of the OSS— Military Team SO may be 
called upon to perform a variety of functions in support of 
the Armed Forces, other branches of OSS and govern- 
mental agencies of the United States or its allies. 

34. MORALE OPERATIONS ACTIVITY 

50 may be required to execute field activity for MO. 
MO activity may include: physical activity for MO effects; 
the subversion of important individuals; the distribution 
of subversive pamphlets, posters, or the marking up of 
slogans; the creation of riots and disturbances; the work 
of agents provocateur; the spreading of rumors; incite- 
ment to resistance; and countering the effects of enemy 
morale operations. 

35. INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITY 

51 may call upon SO to gather information and to 
transmit it. X-2 may ask SO operatives to assist in discov- 
ering and neutralizing the work of enemy intelligence 
agents. 

36. ASSISTANCE TO THE ARMED FORCES 

SO may be called upon by theater and other com- 
manders to perform special activities such as to provide 
guides, interpreters, couriers, and signal men, and to de- 
fend or protect installations within the enemy areas. In 
support of the military plan SO may be required to create 
diversions with false signals, sabotage, and attacks by 
resistance groups for the purpose of deceiving the enemy. 

37. DIRECT CONTACT WITH AND SUPPORT OF UN- 
DERGROUND RESISTANCE GROUPS 



OPERATIONS FUNCTIONS 



SO will maintain liaison with resistance groups; to 
encourage, instruct, and direct them, and to supply them 




ment, and other materiel. 

38. SPECIAL OPERATIONS NOT ASSIGNED TO OTHER 
GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES AND NOT UNDER THE 
DIRECT CONTROL OF THEATER OR AREA COM- 
MANDERS 

From neutral areas or in areas not under a military 
commander, SO may recruit and train personnel or con- 
duct operations in enemy or enemy-occupied countries as 
directed by Strategic Services in Washington, Chief of the 
OSS Mission and at field bases. For this type of operation, 
instructions must be clear and explicit to make sure that 
SO does not overstep its authority or clash with any other 
agency, or provoke undesirable diplomatic or political 
complications. The Chief of the Diplomatic Mission should 
be advised of such contemplated operations. 

SECTION X— THE SELECTION OF SPECIAL 
OPERATIONS TASKS AND MISSIONS 

39. TYPES OF TASKS 

In sabotage and in contact with and support of re- 
sistance groups there is a large field of possible SO tasks, 
including: 

a. Organizational Tasks — the recruiting of agents, 
gaining contact with and establishing good relations 
with such groups, assisting in their training, organiza- 
tion, leadership and supply. 

b. Operational Tasks 

(1) Sabotage of enemy resources, productive facil- 
ities, personnel, materiel, and installations, as well as 
protection of vital installations and equipment re- 
quired by our own forces and the civilian population. 

(2) Miscellaneous special operations tasks in sup- 
port of the other branches of OSS and the Armed 
Forces and governmental agencies of the United 
States and its Allies. 





40. sELEcmh&mm^sMq^^o^iioBi 

THE MILITARY PLAN*'* * J J; 

As SO is a member of the OSS — Military*Team it is 
necessary that its activities always be in proper relation- 
ship to the military plan of the commander. The status of 
military activities will have a direct and important bearing 
on the type of special operations engaged in. 

a. During a Relatively Static or Preparatory 
Phase of Military Activity 

(1) Such a phase may extend over a long period of 
time during which the opposing forces will be gather- 
ing strength or breaking down resistance by bombing 
from the air and submarine warfare, or maneuvering 
for strategic advantages on the flanks or by the clear- 
ing of lines of communication. During a preparatory 
phase the activities to be engaged in depend on the 
situation. However, attacks on military communica- 
tions, installations, and personnel can be effective 
during a preparatory phase when the enemy is operat- 
ing in extremely hostile occupied territory, far from 
its home base, with limited and vulnerable lines of 
communication. Under such favorable circumstances, 
activities of resistance groups can make it extremely 
costly for the enemy to hold the territory and main- 
tain communications. 

(2) Industrial sabotage will reach its greatest 
effectiveness during a preparatory phase of military 
activity and the primary objectives should be those 
facilities whose destruction will cause maximum in- 
convenience to the enemy. The selection of industries 
to attack will depend on their relative importance to 
the war effort and this will depend upon the over-all 
production position of the enemy. Only a careful and 
accurate survey of the production picture, industry 
by industry, will enable SO to determine what ob- 
jectives to attack and then a full knowledge of manu- 
facturing techniques will be necessary before the best 
targets can be selected. As a general rule, critical 
materials and sources of supply, bottlenecks of pro- 



17 




pre- 
hing 



ferns 



and everything which may hurt the enemy, if and 
when included as part of an approved program. These 
activities should be very carefully coordinated with 
air intelligence and the air bombing program. 

(3) SO may also contribute to an MO program of 
encouraging slow-downs, mistakes, confusion, de- 
moralization, absenteeism, riots, disturbances, and 
resistance of all kinds as long as they do not interfere 
with calculated attacks on the more important ob- 
jectives. 

b. During and Just Preceding a Period op Intensive 
Military Activity 

(1) A period of intensive military activity may 
include air, land, or sea battles or combined opera- 
tions; offensives, retreats or sieges; warfare of move- 
ment or position; landings or river crossings; and, 
the campaign may extend over large or small areas 
of land or water and involve large or small forces. 
During such a phase SO activity should be concen- 
trated on those missions which will give direct and 
immediate aid to the armed forces. 

(2) Missions may include attacks on enemy per- 
sonnel, materiel, and communications and they may 
include defenses of communications and installations 
which the commander may wish to protect from 
enemy demolition. 

(3) The selection of specific missions will depend 
on the situation and the military plan. Under one set 
of circumstances, it may be necessary for SO to con- 
centrate all its efforts on blocking enemy transporta- 
tion. When the enemy forces are not too strong and 
are operating in a hostile territory, a general organ- 
ized resistance on the part of the civilian population 
may give the greatest help to the military com- 
mander. In selecting missions, every possibility should 
be considered and carefully examined in relation to 





In general, SO activities will nSdFWTthin the scope of 
its prescribed functions, as described in pars. 1 and 3, 
Section I. In the field, these may be modified as the theater 
commander requires. However, all SO missions must be 
included in approved programs covering the accomplish- 
ment of definite objectives. 

42. TASKS SHOULD BE PRACTICAL 

Unless it is reasonably feasible to accomplish the task 
assigned with the personnel and equipment available, such 
SO task should not be undertaken. This does not mean that 
SO should be unwilling to take risks. SO should always be 
on the offensive, planning and executing its activities in 
an aggressive spirit and willing to accept considerable 
losses and to risk failure. 

43. MISSIONS MUST BE APPROVED BY THE 
MILITARY COMMANDER 

The responsibility for success of military operations 
rests with the commander. For security reasons, it will not 
be possible for SO to be acquainted with all of the military 
plans. It is essential, therefore, that all SO missions with- 
in theaters be acceptable to the theater commander and 
be approved by him. 

44. CHECK LIST 

In Appendix "A" there are summarized in the form of 
a check list a number of the more important points that 
may have been presented in this manual. This check list 
may serve as a brief list of reminders to SO personnel to 
assist them in the course of their work. 




v 



- L to " **" ^ f ^ 

SPECIAL OPERATIONS FIELD MANUAL —"^ ~ J 
STRATEGIC SERVICES 
(Provisional) 

CHECK LIST 
For SO (Washington) 

PLANNING 

1. AUTHORITY 

Does the projected activity conform to approved 
Strategic Services special programs or to additional activi- 
ties approved by competent authority for inclusion in 
special programs? 

2. PLANNING IN IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAMS 

a. Is planning complete, covering tests as to suitabili- 
ty, feasibility, and practicability? 

b. Have provisions been made for: 

(1) Coordination of planning with appropriate 
allied agencies? 

(2) Recruiting and training of necessary person- 
nel? 

(3) Equipment, supplies, funds, and administra- 
tive services? 

(4) Adequate communications? 

(5) Transportation to the theater? 

c. Have SO plans been coordinated with those of 
other OSS branches to ensure perfect teamwork and to 
avoid duplication? 

d. Have these plans been approved by appropriate 
authority? 

e. Has all pertinent intelligence been forwarded to 
the field for use in current and further operational 
plans to be made there? 



taken by^fe^pj 
the implementai 




g. Have all standing instraJtioi^pyMspect of SO 
activities been complied with? 

SUPPLIES: PROCUREMENT, TRAINING, AND 



3. SUPPLIES 

a. Has the field been consulted regarding supply re- 
quirements for the special programs? 

b. Based on that information have lists of supplies 
and equipment required for the projected activities been 
prepared and submitted as a requisition to Procurement 
and Supplies Branch? 

c. Has close liaison been maintained all the way with 
Procurement and Supply to determine: 

(1) Availability of supplies and equipment? 

(2) Time required to obtain such material? 

d. Has the base been notified of what part of the sup- 
plies will be sent from Washington? 

e. Has branch chief in the field been notified to initi- 
ate requests for supplies and equipment as soon as need 
can be foreseen? 

f . Has the field been informed of new special devices 
and weapons that have become available since plans 
were made, and have descriptions of their functions and 
operating details been sent to the field, as well as the 
quantities available? 

g. Has provision been made for adequate funds for 
the activities under this program? 

4. SUPPLIES OF OSS FUNDS AND SPECIAL EQUIP- 
MENT FOR RESISTANCE GROUPS 

a. Has the field provided detailed information regard- 
ing needs of the resistance elements for money, supplies, 
and equipment? 



EQUIPPING OF PERSONNEL 




ft 





(1) What is available from stocks at theT>ase? 

(2) Wliatlias to be shipped from the U.S.? 

b. Have all needed steps been taken to obtain these 
materials through Services — Procurement and Supply? 

5. SHIPMENT OF SUPPLIES 

a. Has theater commander approval been received 
from field for shipment of supplies and equipment? 

b. Has field been informed of : 

(1) Schedule of shipment of supplies and equip- 
ment? 

(2) Shortages in the shipment? 

6. PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT 

a. Has personnel about to be sent abroad in connec- 
tion with prospective activities been examined individu- 
ally for: 

(1) Proper training? 

(2) Proper inoculations for overseas service? 

(3) Regular equipment and special equipment? 

(4) Careful security check? 

b. Has plausible "cover" been worked out and ap- 
proved? 

7. TRAINING OF PERSONNEL 

a. Has continuous contact been kept by the SO offi- 
cers with men in training? Has that contact been main- 
tained in a manner consistent with security? 

b. Has special training for the specific assignment 
been completed satisfactorily? 

c. Has the trainee been informed as far as possible 
consistent with security, of his proposed assignment? 

d. Has indoctrination of personnel been completed? 

e. Has special emphasis been placed on security 
throughout the training course? 

f . Are you satisfied with the security and discretion 
of the individual? 



22 

i 




g. Has the indivk 
"cover" story? 

h. Has provision been made for uEIlidft^jJtjlijfperson- 

nel in event of delay in transportation? 

8. REPORTS 

Have you arranged with the field to send you detailed 
reports of: 

a. Operational plans made in the implementation of 
special programs? 

b. Successes or failures in the field in the effort to 
carry out the missions? 

c. Effectiveness of any special devices? 

d. Any new methods developed for the use of special 
devices? 

e. Status of personnel — by activities under programs? 

f . Cooperation received from pertinent allied organi- 
zations? 

g. Supply of resistance forces: 

(1) Supplied directly by OSS? 

(2) Supplied directly by the theater commander? 

9. TRANSPORTATION OF PERSONNEL 

a. Has theater commander approval been given to 
transportation schedules for personnel? 

b. Have all the proper documents been prepared and 
all authorizations received? 

c. Has overseas security check been made by OSS, 
Washington? 

d. Has final security check been made? 

e. Has final inspection been made of physical condi- 
tion and equipment of personnel? 

f. Has the field been notified giving names, grades 
of personnel being sent, as well as the numbers that are 
to follow, if any, to complete the allotment for the pro- 
jected activity? 





PLANNING 



1. AUTHORITY 

Does the projected activity conform to approved 
Strategic Services special programs or to additional activi- 
ties approved by competent authority for inclusion in 
special programs? 

2. PLANNING IN IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAMS 

a. Is operational planning complete, covering tests 
as to suitability, feasibility, and practicability? 

b. Have provisions been made for: 

(1) Coordination of planning with appropriate 
allied agencies? 

(2) Recruitment and training of necessary addi- 
tional personnel? 

(3) Equipment, supplies, funds, and administra- 
tive services? 

(4) Adequate communications? 

(5) Transportation to, within, and from the area 
of action? 

c. Have SO plans been coordinated with those of 
other OSS branches to ensure perfect teamwork and to 
avoid duplication? 

d. Has the plan been checked against pertinent intel- 
ligence from all sources? 

e Have instructions been included in the plan for 
training of personnel and indoctrination in security and 
responsibility in the projected activity? 

f . Has provision been made in the plan for prompt 
reports of field personnel to base : 

(1) Information obtained? 

(2) Progress of activities? 





funds, equipment, personnel? 

g. Has provision been made in the plan for the in- 
clusion in the required biweekly reports on all activities 
to SO in Washington, of: 

(1) Copies of operational plans as soon as security 
conditions permit? 

(2) Effectiveness of any special devices? 

(3) New methods developed for the use of special 
devices? 

(4) Status of personnel — by activities under pro- 
grams? 

(5) Cooperation received from pertinent allied 
organizations? 

SUPPLIES: PROCUREMENT, TRAINING, AND 
EQUIPPING OF PERSONNEL 

3. SUPPLIES 

a. Have requirements for supplies and equipment 
been carefully worked out? 

b. Have arrangements been made with Services to 
obtain in the theater what is available there from Amer- 
ican and allied military supplies? 

c. Has Services requisitioned the remaining needs 
from Procurement and Supplies Branch in Washington? 

d. Has the final approved list been checked as to 
time required to get such material to the field? 

e. Have descriptions of functions and operating de- 
tails of latest OSS weapons been received? 

f. Has requisition been made for these weapons? 

g. Have required funds been requisitioned? 

h. Have steps been taken to obtain required amount 
of foreign currency? 

i. Have arrangements been made for adequate dis- 



guise am 





4. SUPPLIES OF OSS FUNDS AND SPECIAL EQUIP- 
MENT FOR RESISTANCE GROUPS 

a. Is a continuing check kept of needs of resistance 
groups for funds, equipment, and supplies? 

b. What is available from stocks at base? 

c. What has to be shipped from the United States? 

d. Have arrangements been made for a continuous 
supply service to the resistance groups? 

5. SHIPMENT OF SUPPLIES 

a. Has proper requisition been made for items men- 
tioned in "4" above? 

b. Has theater commander approval been forwarded 
to Washington for shipment of items? 

c. Has schedule of shipments been worked out with 
Washington? 

6. PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT 

Has personnel on arrival been examined individually 
for: 

a. Morale; 

b. Physical condition; 

c. Equipment; 

d. Training; 

e. Indoctrination; 

f. Security? 

7. TRAINING OF PERSONNEL 

For personnel trained at the base, have the following 
points been checked carefully: 

a. Has continuous contact been kept by SO officers 
with men in training? Has that contact been maintained 
in a manner consistent with security? 



b. Has special training for the specific assignment 
been completed satisfactorily? 

2€ 



c. 




as possible 




consistent with security, of his pra]JiiOT%ssignment? 

d. Is the indoctrination complete? 

e. Has special emphasis been placed on security 
throughout the training course? 

f. Are you satisfied with the security and discretion 
of the individual? 

TRANSPORTATION OF PERSONNEL 

8. AUTHORIZATION FOR TRANSPORTATION 

a. Have all the proper documents been prepared con- 
sistent with the individual's cover or protection and his 
proposed activities? 

b. Has the individual a supply of money consistent 
with his cover? 

c. Have arrangements for transportation of the indi- 
vidual to destination been worked out with military 
authorities? 

d. Have arrangements been made to insure estab- 
lishment of the individual's secret communications with 
the base? 

e. Have all measures covering security of individual's 
departure been taken? 

f . Have arrangements been made for the individual's 
withdrawal in case of necessity or when his task is com- 
pleted? 




27